By Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour
The six volumes of A historical past of the Crusades will stand because the definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international.
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Extra info for A History of the Crusades, Volume VI: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe
The pope was placed under arrest by imperial guards and forced to agree. But the attempt at compromise failed to persuade the Monophysites to accept the 'neo-Chalcedonian' position. Upon his death in 565 Justinian left a vastly expanded but perilously overstretched empire, both in financial as well as in military terms. Justinian had seen himself as the embodiment of Roman imperial power, and there can be no doubt as to the brilliance of his reign and the enormous enhancement of Roman prestige which his reconquests brought.
At some point in the early seventh century, perhaps under Heraclius, two Irano-Slavic groups, the Croats and Serbs, had thrown off Avar control and migrated from north of the Pannonian plain into 'Roman' territory in the north-west and central Balkan region, where they established loose confederacies incorporating the indigenous and migrant populations of the region, again nominally under imperial authority, but effectively quite independent. By the end of Heraclius' reign in 642 the empire could exercise its authority in the inland regions only through military force.
Relations with Rome throughout the history of the Persian empire were tense - while there were substantial periods without actual fighting, the Romans were always aware of the threat from the east and substantial resources were devoted to holding it in check. By the same token, the Persians likewise spent considerable sums in protecting their own frontier and in challenging Rome for control over the mountainous Armenian principalities and lesser Caucasian states, both because of their strategic significance and because of the wealth of their mineral resources, in particular gold and other precious metals.
A History of the Crusades, Volume VI: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe by Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour