By John Freely
Aladdin’s Lamp is the interesting tale of ways historic Greek philosophy and technology begun within the 6th century B.C. and, throughout the subsequent millennium, unfold around the Greco-Roman international, generating the outstanding discoveries and theories of Thales, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes, Galen, Ptolemy, and so on. John Freely explains how, because the darkish a while shrouded Europe, students in medieval Baghdad translated the works of those Greek thinkers into Arabic, spreading their rules during the Islamic global from vital Asia to Spain, with many Muslim scientists, so much significantly Avicenna, Alhazen, and Averroës, including their very own interpretations to the philosophy and technological know-how they'd inherited. Freely is going directly to express how, starting within the 12th century, those texts by way of Islamic students have been then translated from Arabic into Latin, sparking the emergence of recent technology on the sunrise of the Renaissance, which climaxed within the medical Revolution of the 17th century.
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Extra resources for Aladdin's Lamp: How Greek Science Came to Europe Through the Islamic World
The Druze muqata ajis blocked the collection of additional levies from Druze peasants or paid them themselves. The taxes were collected only from the Maronite peasants of Maronite muqata ajis in the northern districts, who Bashir II thought lacked a leadership capable of opposing him. Therefore, although some Druze peasants and one muqata aji family participated in the revolts, they primarily involved Maronite peasants in districts with Maronite muqata ajis. This gave the movements a sectarian character, which was enhanced by the active participation of Maronite clergymen (Harik 1968: 208–22; Khalaf 1987: 33–35).
Lower Egypt, Mount Lebanon, and Jabal Nablus represent very diﬀerent agrarian regimes, yet the three cases converge in refuting the predictions of both the Orientalist paradigm of eighteenthcentury economic decline and world systems theory. Well before the French invasion of Egypt and the Egyptian occupation of greater Syria, peasants in these regions produced commercial crops for regional markets and export to Europe, especially France. Commercial agriculture was not an innovation brought about by increased contact with European markets or the entrepreneurial activity of large landowners, although these factors stimulated and inﬂuenced its development.
In the Middle East, as in Europe, the transition to large-scale mechanized production was prolonged; older and newer production methods coexisted for some time, especially in the textile industry (Quataert 1991a; Quataert 1994b: 14–15; Quataert 1994a). Trajectory of the book Working people, with all the variations in their local experiences, are a major force in the modern history of the Middle East. Late eighteenthand nineteenth-century rulers understood the need to mobilize them for state-building projects.
Aladdin's Lamp: How Greek Science Came to Europe Through the Islamic World by John Freely