By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer
This is a state-of-the-art file due to the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The document summarises learn so far within the region of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a selected concentrate on the next components: binder layout and characterisation, sturdiness checking out, commercialisation, standardisation, and supplying a historic context for this rapidly-growing study field.
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Additional info for Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM
The driving force behind research in Spain to develop alternative cements based on the alkali activation of industrial waste (blast furnace slag, fly ash, mining debris and so on), as in many other European countries, is essentially the pursuit of new construction materials able to compete in performance with OPC, but with a much lower environmental impact. These studies are undertaken within the framework of “sustainable” construction, where materials were and continue to be a fundamental part of the building process.
7 Development of Alkali-Activated Cements in Western Europe and North America Metallurgical, and particularly blast furnace, slags have long been used as cementitious constituents in concretes in western Europe, with developments in this area dating as far back as at least the 1860–1870s in France and Germany , and 1905 in the USA . Fly ash was first used in concrete in the USA in the 1930s . The first use of alkalis along with hydraulic or latent hydraulic components to form a binder dates to the early 1900s, when the German scientist Kühl reported  studies on the setting behaviour of mixtures of ground slag and alkaline components.
3, 4, and 5. Potassium carbonates, or the carbonates of other alkali metals, have not often been used in preparation of alkali-activated binders. 6 presents a phase diagram for the ternary system Na2CO3-NaHCO3H2O, which is of relevance both to the use of carbonate activators and also to the carbonation-related chemistry of alkali-activated binder pore solutions. It is necessary to consider the potential formation of bicarbonate, even in systems where solid Na2CO3 is combined with water to form the activating solution, because even a small extent of carbonate hydrolysis or additional atmospheric carbonation will lead to bicarbonate formation.
Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM by John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer