By K. N. Liou
Solid publication for either undergrads and grads. additionally important as a reference e-book for researchers.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation
Wiley, New York. Chapters 4 and 5 provide enlightened discussions of the fundamentals of rotational, vibrational, and electronic transitions. Penner, S. S. (1950). Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Chapters 1–3 provide helpful explanations of blackbody radiation and absorption line proﬁles. 6 billion years ago, the sun condensed out of the center of a thin, hot, spinning disk of interstellar material, according to a theory proposed by Laplace (1796).
Thus, only an insigniﬁcant fraction of the sun’s substance has been lost by electromagnetic radiation. It is estimated that only 5% of the sun’s total mass has been converted from hydrogen to helium in its lifetime thus far. 37 38 2 Solar Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere Zone of convection (~ 150,000 km) Photosphere (~ 500 km) Ra di at io n Chromosphere (~ 2000 km) Core Corona (> ~ 3000 km) He + E 4H 15 million K Sunspots a. 1 A cross section of the sun illustrating the solar interior and atmosphere.
1) where ρ is the density of the material, and kλ denotes the mass extinction cross section (in units of area per mass) for radiation of wavelength λ. 4, the mass extinction cross section is the sum of the mass absorption and scattering cross sections. Thus, the reduction in intensity is due to absorption by the material as well as to scattering by the material. On the other hand, the radiation’s intensity may be strengthened by emission from the material plus multiple scattering from all other directions into the pencil under consideration at the same wavelength (see Fig.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by K. N. Liou