By Janet Holmes.
Contents Preface to Fourth version Preface to 3rd variation Preface to moment version Preface to First variation Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists research? what's a sociolinguist? Why can we say an identical factor in several methods? What are different methods we are saying issues? Social components, dimensions and causes part I: Multilingual Speech groups 2. Language selection in multilingual groups deciding upon your type or code Diglossia Code-switching or code-mixing three. Language upkeep and shift Language shift in numerous groups Language dying and language loss components contributing to language shift How can a minority language be maintained? Language revival four. Linguistic types and multilingual international locations Vernacular languages normal languages Lingua francas Pidgins and creoles five. nationwide languages and language making plans nationwide and respectable languages making plans for a countrywide reliable language constructing a regular kind in Norway The linguist's function in language making plans part II: Language edition: specialise in clients 6. nearby and social dialects nearby edition Social version Social dialects 7. Gender and age Gender-exclusive speech modifications: non-Western groups Gender-preferential speech gains: social dialect learn Gender and social classification motives of women's linguistic behaviour Age-graded beneficial properties of speech Age and social dialect information Age grading and language swap eight. Ethnicity and social networks Ethnicity Social networks nine. Language swap edition and alter How do alterations unfold? How will we examine language swap? purposes for language switch part III: Language edition: concentrate on makes use of 10. sort, context and sign up Addressee as a power on type lodging concept Context, variety and sophistication sort in non-Western societies check in eleven. Speech services, politeness and cross-cultural conversation The services of speech Politeness and tackle types Linguistic politeness in several cultures 12. Gender, politeness and stereotypes Women's language and self assurance interplay Gossip The linguistic development of gender The linguistic development of sexuality Sexist language thirteen. Language, cognition and tradition Language and notion Whorf Linguistic different types and tradition Discourse styles and tradition Language, social category, and cognition 14. Analysing Discourse Pragmatics and politeness concept Ethnography of talking Interactional sociolinguistics dialog research (CA) severe Discourse research (CDA) 15. Attitudes and purposes Attitudes to language Sociolinguistics and schooling Sociolinguistics and forensic linguistics sixteen. end Sociolinguistic competence Dimensions of sociolinguistic research Sociolinguistic universals References Appendix: phonetic symbols thesaurus Index
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Are they distinct languages or varieties of the same language? (ii) How are they used in the community? (iii) Which is used for conversation with family and friends? (iv) How is each variety learned? (v) Which has most prestige? (vi) Which is codified in grammar books and dictionaries? (vii) In which variety is literature usually written? (b) Judged by these seven features would you say that Hemnesberget described in example 6 in chapter 1 qualified as a diglossic community? Why (not)? Answers at end of chapter 29 An introduction to sociolinguistics Diglossia with and without bilingualism Diglossia is a characteristic of speech communities rather than individuals.
COME IN. ] Mere: Kia ora e hoa. Kei te pai. Have you started yet? [HELLO MY FRIEND. I’M FINE] 34 Chapter 2 Language choice in multilingual communities People sometimes switch code within a domain or social situation. When there is some obvious change in the situation, such as the arrival of a new person, it is easy to explain the switch. In example 8, Mere is Maori and although the rest of the meeting will be conducted in English, Sarah switches to Maori to greet her. The Maori greeting is an expression of solidarity.
But while either would be perfectly possible in written or spoken English, in most diglossia situations the H form would not occur in everyday conversation, and the L form would generally seem odd in writing. Exercise 5 Fill in the following table on the basis of your predictions about when H will be used and when L will be used in diglossic communities. H(igh) Variety L(ow) Variety Religion (sermon, prayers) Literature (novels, non-fiction) Newspaper (editorial) Broadcasting: TV news Education (written material, lectures) Education (lesson discussion) Broadcasting: radio Shopping Gossiping Answer at end of chapter No one uses H for everyday interaction.
An introduction to sociolinguistics by Janet Holmes.