By S. Lekhnitskii, S. W. Tsai, T. Cheron
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4-2 or other controlling combinations of loads, as discussed in Chapter 2, whichever produces the greater load. In structures such as greenhouses, where special scaffolding is used as a work surface for workmen and materials during maintenance and repair operations, a lower roof load than specified in Eq. 4-2 shall not be used unless approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 58 kNlm2). 1 General. 12 x slope, with slope expressed in percentage points) and, for an arch or dome, F = rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32.
The total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds the sum of the areas of openings in the balance of the building envelope (walls and roof) by more than 10 percent. 2. 37 m2) or 1 percent of the area of that wall, whichever is smaller, and the percentage of openings in the balance of the building envelope does not exceed 20 percent. These conditions are expressed by the following equations: 1. lOA,; 2. 20 where A,, Ax are as defined for Open Building A,; = the sum of the areas of openings in the building envelope (walls and roof) not including A,, in ft2 (m2) Ax; = the sum of the gross surface areas of the building envelope (walls and roof) not including Ax, in ft2 (m2) BUILDING OR OTHER STRUCTURE, REGULARSHAPED: A building or other structure having no unusual geometrical irregularity in spatial form.
2 Vertical Impact Force. 1 American National Standard Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, 1993. sf (. k ~ i m. ~ ) I Conc. Ib (kN) . 33) Apartments (see Residential) Assembly areas and theaters Fixed seats (fastened to floor) Lobbies Movable seats Platforms (assembly) Stage floors Balconies (exterior) On one- and two-familv residences onlv. 3 m2) I I Bowling allevs. ooolrooms. 92) I 1 I Corridors First floor Other floors. 79) I I I Decks (patio and roof) Same as area served. 4 Fire escapes On single-family dwellings only Fixed ladders Garages (passenger vehicles only) Trucks and buses Grandstands (see Stadi~tmsand arenas.
Anisotropic plates by S. Lekhnitskii, S. W. Tsai, T. Cheron