By Peter Strehl
This treatise covers all points of the layout and the day-by-day operations of a beam diagnostic procedure for a wide particle accelerator. a really interdisciplinary box, it includes contributions from physicists, electric and mechanical engineers and machine specialists alike in order to fulfill the ever-increasing calls for for beam parameter variability for an enormous diversity of operation modi and particles.The writer attracts upon forty years of study and paintings, such a lot of them spent because the head of the beam diagnostics team at GSI. He has illustrated the extra theoretical facets with many real-life examples that may supply beam instrumentation designers with rules and instruments for his or her paintings.
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Additional info for Beam instrumentation and diagnostics
28 where an O-ring is used to avoid a short circuit in the induced signal. This kind of sealing may be used in vacua up to about 10−7 mbar and a moderate level of radiation. A newly designed transformer , shown in Fig. 24, has been inserted completely in a vacuum-sealed housing. As it is clear from the ﬁgure, the construction does not require extra insulation around the gap. The stable support, which seems to be slightly oversized, avoids vibrations causing microphonic distortions. The transformer has been designed to measure beam Ibeam B, dA ra A ri N h Signal Calibration Fig.
32. Scheme of a pulse phase modulator. 3 Beam Current Transformers 45 Fig. 33. Principle of dc-current measurement. 5 in the units used). Right: Fourier spectra of the signals without and with the dc-component • The relation between the dc-current, which has to be measured, and the amplitude of the second harmonics depends on many factors and, therefore calibration and accurate absolute determination of current are diﬃcult. • Due to the large ﬁrst harmonic, the ﬁrst stages of the electronics have to process relatively large signals without any information about the beam current.
Furthermore, precise absolute calibration can be performed by feeding a well-known current pulse from an external current source via a dedicated calibration winding. 34 2 Beam Intensity Measurements One basic shortcoming of beam current transformers is the strong dependence of the sensitivity and time constant on the time structure of the beam. Since there is a great variety in the characteristics of beams, a broad spectrum of solutions is possible in: • mechanical design, • type of core material, for example, Vitrovac, Ni–Zn ferrites; • winding schemes, and for example, biﬁlar windings to reduce common mode noise signals; • signal processing electronics connected to the current transformer.
Beam instrumentation and diagnostics by Peter Strehl