By G. R. Palin and N. Hiller (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Chemistry for Technologists
To illustrate the complexity of chemical bonding the cases of two simple substances, carbon dioxide, C 0 2, and sodium sulphate, N a 2S 0 4, are considered. CHEMICAL 39 BONDING Carbon dioxide is a linear molecule with a central carbon a t o m joined to each oxygen a t o m by identical bonds. The characteristics of these bonds are midway between those of a double bond, and those of a triple bond. e. s 2s 2p x 2py 2p\. A localized single covalent b o n d is formed between each of the sp hybrid orbitals of the carbon a t o m and the 2pz orbital of each oxygen atom.
This is equal in magnitude, and opposite in sign, to the change in internal energy of the system. Useful energy = — Δ U (at constant temperature). This relationship also holds for an endothermic reaction, but in this case the useful energy is the amount of heat which must be introduced to bring about the reaction at constant temperature and volume. If the same reaction had been carried out at constant pressure, and had been accompanied by a volume change, the volume of the products being greater than that of the reactants, work would have been done by the system in expanding.
This change can be represented as 2 2 C I s 2s 2px 2p) 2 • C Is 3 (sp )* The two electrons in the Is orbital are unchanged, but the electrons in the 3 2s orbital and those in the 2p orbitals are affected. These four electrons occupy four new orbitals, which are identical and are denoted by sp . The four orbitals are orientated as shown in Fig. 9a. The carbon a t o m in this form has four unpaired electrons each of which can form a bond. The methane molecule results from the interaction of each of these orbitals with the Is orbital of a hydrogen atom.
Chemistry for Technologists by G. R. Palin and N. Hiller (Auth.)