By Cisco Systems Inc., Cisco Networking Academy Program
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Additional info for Cisco Networking Academy Program. CCNA 3 and 4 Companion Guide
Second, if many computers simultaneously need to send datagrams to a single destination, that destination can experience congestion, even though no single source caused the problem. When datagrams arrive too quickly for a host or gateway to process, they are temporarily stored in memory. If the traffic continues, the host or gateway eventually exhausts its memory and must discard additional datagrams that arrive. Therefore, as shown in Figure 1-20, an indicator acts like a stoplight and signals the sender to stop sending data.
For security reasons, the administrator can hide parts of a network. Dynamic routing tends to reveal everything known about a network. Additionally, when a network is accessible by only one path, a static route to the network can be sufficient. This type of partition is called a stub network. Configuring static routing to a stub network avoids the overhead of dynamic routing because routing updates are not sent. A Default Route Example Figure 1-16 shows a use for a default route—a routing table entry that is used to direct packets for which the next hop is not explicitly listed in the routing table.
For example, the frame header contains physical addresses. The physical layer also provides a service to the data link layer by encoding the datalink frame into a pattern of ones and zeros for transmission on the medium (often copper wire or optical fiber). For example, let’s assume that Host A wants to send the following e-mail to Host B: The small gray cat ran up the wall to try to catch the red bird. Five conversion steps occur during data encapsulation, which enables the transmission of the e-mail to the appropriate destination: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 As a user sends an e-mail message, its alphanumeric characters are converted to data, starting at Layer 7 down through Layer 5, and are sent over the network.
Cisco Networking Academy Program. CCNA 3 and 4 Companion Guide by Cisco Systems Inc., Cisco Networking Academy Program