By Max Jammer
The idea that of mass is among the such a lot primary notions in physics, similar in value in basic terms to these of house and time. yet not like the latter, that are the topic of innumerable actual and philosophical stories, the concept that of mass has been yet hardly ever investigated. the following Max Jammer, a number one thinker and historian of physics, presents a concise yet complete, coherent, and self-contained learn of the idea that of mass because it is outlined, interpreted, and utilized in modern physics and because it is seriously tested within the sleek philosophy of technology. With its specialise in theories proposed after the mid-1950s, the ebook is the 1st of its sort, protecting the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the character of mass and its position in glossy physics, from the area of undemanding debris to the cosmology of galaxies.
The publication starts off with an research of the continual problems of defining inertial mass in a noncircular demeanour and discusses the comparable query of no matter if mass is an observational or a theoretical proposal. It then experiences the proposal of mass in certain relativity and the fragile challenge of even if the relativistic leisure mass is the single valid inspiration of mass and if it is exact with the classical (Newtonian) mass. this can be by way of a severe research of the various derivations of the well-known mass-energy dating E = mc2 and its conflicting interpretations. Jammer then devotes a bankruptcy to the excellence among inertial and gravitational mass and to some of the types of the so-called equivalence precept with which Newton initiated his Principia yet which additionally grew to become the start line of Einstein's common relativity, which supersedes Newtonian physics. The publication concludes with a presentation of lately proposed international and native dynamical theories of the starting place and nature of mass.
Destined to turn into a much-consulted reference for philosophers and physicists, this ebook can be written for the nonprofessional normal reader attracted to the rules of physics.
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Extra info for Concepts of Mass in Contemporary Physics and Philosophy
60 P. ,” Journal for General Philosophy of Science 8, 303–313 (1977); “Newton ab omni naevo vindicatus,” Philosophia Naturalis 18, 243–255 (1981); “Die Eindeutigkeit der Massemessung und die Definition der Tr¨agheit,” Philosophia Naturalis 22, 87–103 (1985); “The Concept of Mass,” in R. E. Butts and J. R. , Constructivism and Science (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1989), pp. 145–162. 30 INERTIAL MASS of equal length can be verified geometrically. If these conditions are satisfied the two bodies are said to be “tractionally equal,” a relation that can be proved to be an equivalence relation.
McKinsey, A. C. Sugar, and P. Suppes, “Axiomatic Foundations of Classical Particle Mechanics,” Journal of Rational Mechanics and Analysis 2, 253–272 (1953). 46 The axiomatization is based on five primitive notions: P, T, m, s, and f , where P and T are sets and m, s, and f are unary, binary, and ternary functions, respectively. , m(p), is the numerical value of the mass of particle p, while s(p, t) is interpreted as the position vector of particle p at time t, and f (p, t, i) as the ith force acting on particle p at time t, it being assumed that each particle is subjected to a number of different forces.
65 G. G. Stokes, “On the Steady Motion of Incompressible Fluids,” Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 7, 439–455 (1842); Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. : The University Press, 1880), pp. 1–16. 66 C. G. Darwin, “Notes on Hydrodynamics,” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 49, 342–354 (1953). , L. M. Milne-Thomson, Theoretical Hydrodynamics (London: Macmillan, 1968), pp. 246–247. 33 CHAPTER ONE Much more problematic is the case in which the medium is not a fluid in the mechanical sense of the term but an electromagnetic field whether of external origin or one produced by the particle itself if it is a charged particle such as the electron.
Concepts of Mass in Contemporary Physics and Philosophy by Max Jammer