By M. A. Mansur
This publication compiles state of the art info at the habit, research, and layout of concrete beams containing transverse openings.Discussions includethe want, results, and class of openings in addition to the overall necessities for gratifying designpure bending, mixed bending, and shear - illustrated with numerical examplestorsion on my own or together with bending and shearlarge oblong openings in addition to beginning dimension and placement on beam behaviormethods for studying final energy and serviceability requirementseffects of torsion in beamslarge openings in non-stop beams and their results on attainable redistribution of inner forces in addition to guidance and approaches for the layout of such beamseffect of prestressing at the serviceability and power of beams with net openingsdesign opposed to cracking at openings and supreme loadsConcrete Beams with Openings serves as a useful resource of knowledge for designers and practising engineers, specially worthy in view that very little provision or instructions are presently to be had in so much construction codes.
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Extra info for Concrete beams with openings: analysis and design
E. , 2003). 7 Improvement in fatigue resistance Externally bonded FRP laminates can significantly improve the fatigue resistance of RC beams (Shahawy and Beitelman, 1999), as they cause a reduction in stress in the reinforcing steel and reduce crack propagation. Grace (2004) applied a fatigue loading for two million cycles on beams strengthened with CFRP plate and fabric. The maximum cyclic load was equal to 40% of the ultimate load and no significant effects on the loadcarrying capacity of such beams were observed.
2000) under four-point bending, giving strength increases of one order of magnitude. Load cycles on the masonry assemblage revealed an elastic behaviour until slip of the reinforcement in the grooves started taking place. After this, energy dissipation was developed by friction and the flexural deformation increased. Collapse occurred by debonding of the bars. By using epoxy strengthened with short fibres, Bajpai and Duthinh (2003) were able to prevent debonding of NSM GFRP bars and consistently rupture the bars in flexural tests of masonry walls.
The research to date on masonry columns is still very limited, compared with the vast amount of data on confinement of RC columns. , 2007). 4 Strengthening arches and vaults Curved masonry elements typically fail by formation of a sufficient number of non-dissipative hinges activating collapse mechanisms. The formation of these hinges is due to the limited tensile strength of the masonry material. The application of FRP sheets at the intrados or at the extrados of an arch or vault modifies the static behaviour of the element by inhibiting the formation of the hinges and, consequently, may greatly increase the collapse multiplier of the structure.
Concrete beams with openings: analysis and design by M. A. Mansur