By Linda Wilson-Pauwels; Elizabeth J. Akesson; Patricia A. Stewart; Sian D. Spacey
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Additional info for Cranial Nerves in Health and Disease, Second Edition
B, How higher cortical areas reconstruct the visual field. (Detail from Rembrant’s The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. ) CASE HISTORY GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. Why is Meredith’s vision blurred? 2. What is the pupillary light reflex? 3. Why was there little constriction of Meredith’s pupils when a bright light was shone in her right eye? 4. What other lesions of the visual pathway result in visual loss? 1. Why is Meredith’s vision blurred? The resolution in the central retina only (fovea) is high enough to allow for reading and recognition of faces (Figures II–9A and II–10A).
Photoreceptor (mainly cones in fovea) Fovea HT G LI 2. Bipolar cell (primary sensory neuron) Sclera Optic nerve 3. Ganglion cell (secondary sensory neuron) Central artery and vein of retina Figure II–3 Retinal layers (enlarged for clarity). * The information received by the photoreceptors is passed forward in the retina to the bipolar cells, which pass the signal further forward to ganglion cells in the anterior layers of the retina. Ganglion cell axons converge toward the optic disk, turn posteriorly, pass through the lamina cribriformis of the sclera, and leave the eye as the optic nerve (see Figure II–3).
33 34 Cranial Nerves Ganglion Cells Ganglion cells receive signals from the photoreceptors via bipolar cells and send signals to the lateral geniculate bodies. There are approximately 137 photoreceptors for each ganglion cell; therefore, there is considerable convergence of signals. The number of photoreceptors that converge on a single ganglion cell varies from several thousand in the periphery of the retina to one in the central fovea (Figure II–5). This one-to-one projection in the fovea provides for the high resolution in central vision (see Figure II–5A).
Cranial Nerves in Health and Disease, Second Edition by Linda Wilson-Pauwels; Elizabeth J. Akesson; Patricia A. Stewart; Sian D. Spacey