By Dorothy T. Krieger M. D. (auth.)
The unraveling of our wisdom of the features of the adrenal gland constitutes one interesting improvement of recent drugs and biochemistry. We owe those advances to the felicitous cooperative efforts of the medical investigator and the biochemist. 3 centuries elapsed among the 1st recorded anatomical descrip tion of the adrenals and the demonstration via Dr. Addison within the mid-nineteenth century of the deadly result of the destruction of those glands via affliction. It turned obtrusive from this commentary that the adrenals secreted a "factor" or "factors" necessary to existence. It took nearly ninety years to isolate this elusive important issue - cortisone - from pork adrenal cortices, independently via either Reichstein and his co-workers in Basle and Kendall and his crew within the usa and one other 10-15 years prior to it turned extra more often than not on hand for experimental and scientific use. it really is maybe tricky to think that as lately as 35-40 years in the past, ahead of cortisone and cortisol have been clinically on hand, the surgical elimination of a benign adrenal cortical tumor in sufferers with Cushing's syndrome used to be linked to a prohibitive postoperative mortality price. inside 12-36 h after operation, such a lot of such sufferers constructed an intractable kingdom of concern, which used to be now not manifested through major electrolyte abnormalities or hypoglycemia and was once unresponsive to the standard therapy for surprise plus the beneficiant use of salt-retaining hormone.
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Extra resources for Cushing’s Syndrome
This appears to be required in the step between hormone-receptor binding and adenylate cyclase activation. It is believed to act by increasing the rate of activation by guanosine triphosphate (GTP) of an active conformation of the cyclase (Ontjes 1980). 24 ACTH Action B. Effect on Adrenal Size, Morphology, and Growth The increase in adrenal size produced by ACTH administration provided the basis for the first bioassay of this hormone. Such increase in size results from a combination of initial cell hypertrophy with a subsequent increase in cell number (Deane 1962).
In: Krieger DT, Ganong WF (eds) ACTH and related peptides: Structure regulation and action. Ann NY Acad Sci 297:27-46 Orth DN, Nicholson WE, Mitchell WM, Island DP, Liddle GW (1973) Biological and immunological characterization and physical separation of ACTH and ACTH fragments in the ectopic ACTH syndrome. J Clin Invest 52: 1756-1759 Pullan PT, Ratter SJ, McLouglin L, Clement-Jones V, Lowry PJ, Besser SM, Rees LH (1980) Adrenocorticotrophin, lipotrophin and opioid peptides in the ectopic ACTH syndrome.
It is generally agreed that ACTH and LPH are present in anterior pituitary in equimolar concentrations (Lowry et al. 1977; Liotta et al. 1978). Variable amounts of y-LPH have been reported. Scott and Lowry (1974) noted a small amount of acidic material reactive in their ,B-MSH assay which appeared to have a composition similar to y-LPH, although the predominant molecular species present was identified as ,B-LPH, whereas Tanaka et al. (1978) found equal or greater amounts of y- than ,B-LPH. In recent studies in which 7 fresh normal operative pituitaries were examined, using an N-terminaldirected ,B-LPH antibody, immunoreactive y-LPH-sized material comprised 10-30% of ,B-LPH-sized material (Liotta, Falaschi, and Krieger, unpublished observations).
Cushing’s Syndrome by Dorothy T. Krieger M. D. (auth.)