By Tamar Herzog
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Extra info for Defining Nations: Immigrants and Citizens in Early Modern Spain and Spanish America
According to this distinction, only the members of the second group were truly forced to abandon their communities, and only they could enjoy the presumption that allowed them to continue to be citizens of communities where they no longer lived. But this distinction was sufﬁciently broad to allow for different interpretations. In practice, most Spanish magnates residing in the court were able to enjoy the protection of this exception and maintain citizenship in their original communities where they owned a family estate.
After these documents were collected, the candidates presented witnesses. These witnesses, usually friends and neighbors, would testify that the petitioner had expressed in words and acts his desire to remain in Seville permanently. Parallel procedures were instituted for newcomers married to local women. ≤∞ In these cases, and those of other newcomers, once the ﬁles were completed the representative of municipal interests ( procurador) advised the council how to proceed. ≤≤ Also according to the 1743 ruling, those born in Seville could continue to request citizenship in the old way, by submitting only a petition and an afﬁdavit.
Women and minors (under age twenty-ﬁve) were not eligible for citizenship. In the case of women, it was generally understood that, as members of a household, they obtained some of the beneﬁts of citizenship by way of dependence. They ﬁrst enjoyed the rights attached to the citizenship status of their fathers and, upon marriage, they attained some of the privileges attached to the citizenship status of their husbands. This state changed only when women became independent heads of households. ∂≤ The case of minors (persons under twenty-ﬁve) was much more complex.
Defining Nations: Immigrants and Citizens in Early Modern Spain and Spanish America by Tamar Herzog